HIV and High Cholesterol
- High cholesterol (also called hyperlipidemia) refers to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. High cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease.
- Risk factors for high cholesterol include a high-fat diet, physical inactivity, and smoking. Some HIV medicines may also increase the risk of high cholesterol in people with HIV.
- Eating foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and getting regular exercise can help prevent or lower high cholesterol levels. Medicines are also sometimes used to treat high cholesterol.
- In people with HIV, treatment for high cholesterol may include changing an HIV regimen to avoid taking HIV medicines that can increase cholesterol levels.
High cholesterol (also called hyperlipidemia) refers to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance made by the body. Cholesterol is also found in foods from animal sources, including egg yolks, meat, and cheese.
The body needs cholesterol to function properly, but having too much can cause problems. High cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease.
The most common causes of high cholesterol are unhealthy lifestyle habits, including the following:
- Eating foods high in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol
- Lack of physical activity
The following are additional risk factors for high cholesterol:
- Age—as people get older, their cholesterol levels tend to rise
- A family history of high cholesterol
- Other medical conditions, such as diabetes
- Being overweight or obese
- Certain medicines
Some HIV medicines may also increase the risk of high cholesterol in people with HIV.
Cholesterol testing is recommended before and after a person starts taking HIV medicines. If cholesterol levels are normal, testing is recommended once a year. If cholesterol levels are too high, more frequent testing is recommended.
People can take these steps to prevent high cholesterol or lower cholesterol levels.
- Eat a healthy diet. Eat foods low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose low-fat or fat-free dairy products, eat more foods that are high in fiber, and eat more vegetables and fruits.
- Get active. Try to get at least 30 minutes of physical activity on most days of the week.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight or obese, losing weight can improve cholesterol levels.
- Quit smoking.To find tips and tools to help you quit smoking, visit the Department of Health and Human Services’ Smokefree.gov website.
Treatment for high cholesterol begins with lifestyle changes. Sometimes cholesterol-lowering medicine is also needed. The most common medicines used to reduce cholesterol levels are called statins.
In people with HIV, treatment for high cholesterol may include changing an HIV regimen to avoid taking HIV medicines that can increase cholesterol levels.
Some HIV medicines can interact with medicines that lower cholesterol levels. Health care providers carefully consider potential drug interactions between HIV medicines and any other medicines a person may be taking.
- From the Department of Health and Human Services: Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents with HIV: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents and Laboratory Testing
- From the Health Resources and Services Administration: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care: Dyslipidemia
- From MedlinePlus: Cholesterol and How to Lower Cholesterol with Diet
- From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): Your Guide To Lowering Your Cholesterol With TLC